A.Keyspace for the password
B.Expertise of the person performing the attack
C.Processing speed of the system executing the attack
D.Encryption algorithm used for password transfer
Inspired by Turing's theory, the first conference on AI convened at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire in 1956. Soon afterwards and Al laboratory was started at Massachusetts Institute of Technology by John McCarthy and Marvin Minsky, two of the nation's leading Al proponents. McCarthy also invented the Al computer language, Lisp; but by the early 1990s Al itself had not been achieved. However, logic programs called expert systems allow computers to "make decisions" by interpreting data and selecting from among alternatives. Technicians can run programs used in complex medical diagnosis, language translation, mineral exploration, and even computer design.
Machinery can outperform. humans physically. So, too, can computers outperform. mental functions in limited areas--notably in the speed of mathematical calculations. For example, the fastest computers developed are able to perform. roughly 10 billion calculations per second. But making more powerful computers will probably not be the way to create a machine capable of passing the Turing test. Computer programs operate according to set procedures, or logic steps, called algorithms. In addition, most computers do serial processing; operations of recognition and computation are performed one at a time. The brain works in a manner called parallel processing, performing operations simultaneously. To achieve simulated parallel processing, some supercomputers have been made with multiple processors to follow several algorithms at the same time.
Critics of the approach insist that solving a computation does not indicate understanding, something a person who solved a problem would have. Human reasoning is not based solely on rules of logic, It involves perception, awareness, emotional preferences, values, evaluation experience, the ability to generalize and weigh options, and more. Some proponents of Al have, therefore, suggested that computers should be patterned after the human brain, which essentially consists of a network of nerve cells.
By the early 1990s, the closest approximation to Al was a special silicon chip built to behave like a human brain cell. It was modeled after the internal working of neurons in the human cerebral context. Unlike the conventional sillicon chip, which works in digital mode, the new silicon chip works in analog mode, much the way human brain cell works.
According to Turing, a computer can prove to have human-like intelligence in a special test if______.
A．the computer gives better answers
B．the questioner fails to give identical questions
C．the questioner can't tell between the answers of a person and a computer
D．the questioner can't find the person hidden by the computer
In other words ,people are a corporation's most expensive resource. For a typical office, over 90 percent of the operating budget is for salaries, benefits and over head. With this investment, is it any wonder that managers are focusing more and more attention on employee productivity？ They realize that the paper jungle cannot be tamed simply by hiring more people. To receive a return on their investment, wise corporate executive officers are realizing what industrialists and agriculturists learned long ago--efficient tools are essential for increased productivity.
A direct relationship exists between efficient flow of information and the quality and speed of the output of the end product. For those companies using technology, the per document cost of information processing is only a fraction of what it was a few years ago. The decreasing cost of computers and peripherals(equipment tied to the computer) will continue to make technology a cost-effective tool in the future. An example of this type of saving is illustrated in the case of the Western Division of General Telephone and Electronics Company(GTE). By making a one-time investment of $10 million to automate its facilities, management estimates an annual saving of $ 8.5 million for the company. This savings is gained mainly through the elimination of support people once needed for proposal projects. Through a telecommunications network that supports 150 computer terminals with good graphics capabilities, the engineers who conceptualize the projects are now direct participants. They use the graphics capacities of the computer rather than rely on drafters to prepare drawings, they enter their own text rather than employ typists, and they use the network to track project progress rather than conducting meetings.
In the first paragraph,the author quotes Straussmann's words in order to make clear
A．the importance of communicative capability in business
B．the need for people of higher positions in a company
C．the importance of assigning people to proper positions
D．the necessity for people in higher positions to know information science