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In 1637 the French mathematician Rene Descartes predicted that it would never be possible

to make a machine that thinks as humans do. In 1950, the British mathematician and computer pioneer Alan Turing declared that one day there would be a machine that could duplicate human intelligence in every way and prove it by passing a specialized test. In this test, a computer and a human hidden from view would be asked random identical questions. If the computer were successful, the questioner would be unable to distinguish the machine from the per son by the answers.

Inspired by Turing's theory, the first conference on AI convened at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire in 1956. Soon afterwards and Al laboratory was started at Massachusetts Institute of Technology by John McCarthy and Marvin Minsky, two of the nation's leading Al proponents. McCarthy also invented the Al computer language, Lisp; but by the early 1990s Al itself had not been achieved. However, logic programs called expert systems allow computers to "make decisions" by interpreting data and selecting from among alternatives. Technicians can run programs used in complex medical diagnosis, language translation, mineral exploration, and even computer design.

Machinery can outperform. humans physically. So, too, can computers outperform. mental functions in limited areas--notably in the speed of mathematical calculations. For example, the fastest computers developed are able to perform. roughly 10 billion calculations per second. But making more powerful computers will probably not be the way to create a machine capable of passing the Turing test. Computer programs operate according to set procedures, or logic steps, called algorithms. In addition, most computers do serial processing; operations of recognition and computation are performed one at a time. The brain works in a manner called parallel processing, performing operations simultaneously. To achieve simulated parallel processing, some supercomputers have been made with multiple processors to follow several algorithms at the same time.

Critics of the approach insist that solving a computation does not indicate understanding, something a person who solved a problem would have. Human reasoning is not based solely on rules of logic, It involves perception, awareness, emotional preferences, values, evaluation experience, the ability to generalize and weigh options, and more. Some proponents of Al have, therefore, suggested that computers should be patterned after the human brain, which essentially consists of a network of nerve cells.

By the early 1990s, the closest approximation to Al was a special silicon chip built to behave like a human brain cell. It was modeled after the internal working of neurons in the human cerebral context. Unlike the conventional sillicon chip, which works in digital mode, the new silicon chip works in analog mode, much the way human brain cell works.

According to Turing, a computer can prove to have human-like intelligence in a special test if______.

A.the computer gives better answers

B.the questioner fails to give identical questions

C.the questioner can't tell between the answers of a person and a computer

D.the questioner can't find the person hidden by the computer

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听力原文:M: What did you do after you lost your French dictionary?W: At first, I intended

听力原文:M: What did you do after you lost your French dictionary?

W: At first, I intended to borrow one from the library. In the end, I decided to buy another one.

What did she do after she lost her French dictionary?

A.She borrowed one from the school library.

B.She borrowed one from her classmate.

C.She bought a new one.

D.She didn't know what to do.

听力原文:W: I'm trying to find out how this dishwasher works. The manual is in French, but
I can't wait for Bill to translate it for me.

M: Don't worry, Mary, I can do the dishes before the machine starts to work.

What does the man mean?

A.He will tell Mary how to operate the dishwasher.

B.He will wash the dishes himself instead.

C.He will help Bill to translate the manual.

D.He himself will operate the dishwasher.

听力原文:M: Are you ready to order, ma'am? W: Yes, I think I'll have a cheese-burger, Fren

听力原文:M: Are you ready to order, ma'am?

W: Yes, I think I'll have a cheese-burger, French fries and a cup of iced tea.

Where does this conversation most probably take place?

A.In a restaurant.

B.In an army unit.

C.At a reservation office.

D.At home.

听力原文: W: Hello, Professor Dannis, my name is Anna Adams. I read in the university news
paper that you were looking for a student to work as a language laboratory assistant.

M: Yes, we are. Are you interested in the job?

W: I think so, but before I apply, I'd like you to tell me more about the work.

M: Have you worked with tape recorders before?

W: I used cassette a lot when I was studying French in high school.

M: Good. There are many different kinds of language labs, ours is a small one, and it's fairly easy to operate. This is the main control panel, you can set the controls for a lot of students to listen to the lessons they want to hear. If you decide to take the job, I'll explain how the system operates. Most of the lessons are on cassette tapes, but some of them are also on long reel tapes of records. The cassettes are kept in order on these shelves, and they are clearly numbered with the language and the lesson number. For example, the cassettes in the green boxes are French lessons. Records and tapes are over there.

W: How many hours would I work?

M: We need someone ten hours a week, Monday through Friday from 4 p. m. to 6 p. m. This is one of the busiest times for this laboratory.

W: I'll fill out an application for this job right now. It would fit into my schedule nicely.

M: Fine, I'll get back to you in a week or so after we review the applications.

Who is the woman?

A.A recording artist.

B.A French teacher.

C.A student.

D.An engineer.

听力原文:W: We are now approaching the famous Statue of Liberty, which has welcomed visito
rs to New York Harbor since 1886.

M: Wow! Look at it. Incredible, isn't it?

W: The statue was given to the United States by the people of France. It was designed by the French sculptor Barthold.

M: It's really huge. Do we get to go inside?

W: Of course. We can climb the stairs all the way up to the crown.

M: Stairs? There's no elevator?

W: Not to the top. But it's just 142 steps!

What is the probable relationship between the speakers?

A.Secretary and manager.

B.Waitress and customer.

C.Guide and tourist.

As early as 1637 Ohio made a decision that free, tax supported schools must be established
in every town ______ 40 households or more.


B.to have

C.to have had

D.having had






听力原文:W: What do you want to do now?M: I want to go back to the hotel.W: But it's only

听力原文:W: What do you want to do now?

M: I want to go back to the hotel.

W: But it's only four o'clock.

M: I'm tired. We've done a lot of sightseeing.

W: We can still go shopping. The stores don't close for another hour.

M: No, I want to rest for a while. We're going to the theatre tonight, you know.

W: Yes, I know. What time does it start?

M: At eight o'clock.

W: Do you want to try to take the bus to the theatre?

M: We can take a taxi. It's more expensive, but it's a lot easier.

W: Where do you want to eat?

M: There are a lot of restaurants neat' the hotel.

W: But what kind of restaurant? Chinese? French? Japanese?

M: Oh, I don't know. Right now I just want to go back to the hotel and rest.

What do you think the speakers are?

A.Citizens of the city.

B.Tourists visiting the city.

C.A couple looking for work.

听力原文:M: Excuse me. how can I get to the Riverside Theater?W: Sorry I didn't earth what

听力原文:M: Excuse me. how can I get to the Riverside Theater?

W: Sorry I didn't earth what you said.

M: Please show me where the Riverside Theater is.

W: Can you speak French? I'm a foreigner here.

M: Oh. wonderful! I come from Paris. Is there a Riverside Theater?

W: OK, let me show you. Walk along the river and take the fourth turn on the left and go down' until you reach the second traffic light. Tuna fight, at the end of the road, you'll see the theater.

M: Good heavens! What a long way!

W: Yes, you can take a taxi if you can't remember what I told you or if you don't want to walk a long way.

M: Well, I like walking. It's a fine day for walking, isn't it? And Shakespeare's play is worth such a day and such a long way!

W: It sounds reasonable. I like Shakespeare!

M: Thank you very much.

W: It's a pleasure.

What is the man going to do?

A.He wants to visit the teacher.

B.He wants to see Shakespeare's play,

C.He wants to meet Shakespeare.

听力原文:M: Could you tell me where our library is?W: It's in the building next to ours.M:

听力原文:M: Could you tell me where our library is?

W: It's in the building next to ours.

M: Is it the big white one?

W: Yes, a great number of books are kept in the library. It has books in Chinese, English, Russian, German, French and many other languages.

M: Are there any reading rooms in the building?

W: Of course. How can it be a library without reading moms? There are quite a number of reading rooms with newspapers and magazines in them on the first and second floors.

M: When is it open?

W: It is open every clay except Sunday.

M: I see. Library is always a busy place. I want to borrow an English hook. I hear "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer" is very interesting. Have you read it?

W: Yes, I enjoyed it very much. It's worth reading.

M: I wonder if you could tell me how to look it up in the card 'catalogue?

W: Certainly. It is written by Mark Twain. So you can either look it up under "A" for the writer, or "T" for the title.

M: Thank you for your great help to me. How long can I keep it?

W: You're welcome. You can keep it for two weeks. When it is due, it should be returned.

Where is the library?

A.It is the big white building.

B.It is next to their building.

C.It is in the school.

D.It is very far from their home.

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